Archive for August, 2008

Bureaucracy

We are talking Organization Design and Development. The word “organization” may be used to refer to the process of organizing, the structure that evolves out pf this process and the processes/activities that take place within it. 

 

We talked about The Classical Viewpoint in our past post. Today we are going to talk about Bureaucracy.

 

 

Bureaucracy 

Bureaucracy is the dominate feature of ancient civilizations as well as modern organizations in contemporary world. Max Weber describes an “ideal type” approach to outline the characteristics of a fully developed bureaucratic form of organization. The features that he described as being characteristic of a bureaucracy are common to all social institutions, be they political, religious, industry, business, military, educational or government organizations. Size and complexity produce bureaucracy. A DVD Copy Software or 1 Click DVD Copy Download are nice example of business organization development. 

  

As such, the rigid structure, fixed jurisdictions, impersonal rules and mundane routine, concomitant with bureaucracies often result in delays, produce inertia, encourage, buck-passing, lead to wastage of resources and cause frustration. As such, in general parlance the word ‘bureaucracy’ has come to have a negative connotation and many tended to wish it away. But the features that characterize bureaucracy have become inevitable and ubiquitous with the growing size and complexity in organizations. Bureaucracy is not like 1Click DVD Copy. There is need, therefore, to understand and improve bureaucracies than indulge in dysfunctional debates over their relevance.

The features of Bureaucracy 

The features which characteristic bureaucracy have been identified by Max Weber by analyzing the way modern officialdom functions. The more important features are considered here briefly.  

  • Rules and Regulations 
  • Hierarchy 
  • Paper Work 
  • Professional Qualifications and Expert Training

We talk on each of above in next post.

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The Classical Viewpoint

Just past weekend I went to an online store which sells blinds, shades, and window treatments. As my cousin bought a house and he wanted to get some ideas on the blinds. While I was shopping on guaranteedblinds.com i start to think will this ever be outdated will it go out of fashion or out of shades. Then I thought this is a classical product which dates back many centuries. Yes designs have changed but concept remains same. The same way the concept of Classical viewpoint of organizational design and structure

 

The Classical Viewpoint

 

In the late 18th century three streams of concepts i.e. bureaucracy, administrative theory and scientific management began to be developed. These concepts have come to be popularly known as classical concepts or classical theories of organizations. The structure of an organizations received emphasis under this school of thought. According to the classical view, “An organization is the structure of the relationships, power, objectives, roles, activities, communications and other factors that exist when persons work together.”

 

The streams of concepts in the “classical” mould are based on the same assumptions, but are developed rather independently. Bureaucracy as a concept, first developed by Max Weber, presents a descriptive, detached, scholarly point of view. Administrative theories not only described macro aspects of organizations but also focused on principles and practice for better performance. Scientific management thought focused mainly on micro aspects like individual worker, foreman, work process, etc. The classical theories on the whole, with scientific management stream consider the three streams of classical theories briefly: i.e. Bureaucracy, Administrative theory and Scientific Management.

 

 

 

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Understanding Organizations -3

Anthropological concepts concerning cultural factors are as pertinent as biological theories of evolutions and psychological theories of human behavior. While Arts and Sciences (e.g. humanities and physics and biological sciences) and social sciences (e.g. economics, history and politics) are relevant to understanding, from a behavioral point of view, the trio of anthropology, sociology and psychology have much to offer. As an academic discipline, anthropology, with its widest scope provides the basic behavioral science discipline. Amongst many of the subfields of specialization in anthropology it is cultural anthropology whose main focus is on the study of origins and history of man’s cultures, their evolution and development, and the structure and functioning of human cultures in every place and time that deals with the reciprocal relationship between culture and behavior. Best example of evolution in marketing is online marketing services from discount clicks.

                                 

Sociology deals with the study of society, institutions, the organizations, the group and norms and roles. Modern psychology is concerned with the study of individual human behavior with the objectives of understanding, prediction and control of human behavior. The purpose here is not to discuss the contributions from each of the discipline but to gain insights into the vast expanse of the field of study. What is important; however, is not mere accumulation of knowledge from diverse fields, but the integrations of concepts and techniques developed in many fields. Online marketing services are accumulation of knowledge and integrations of concepts and techniques like seo work.

 

Though formal study of organizations began only in recent decades, ‘organizations’- human organizations –are as old as human civilization itself. Claude S. George explained elements of organizations that were discernible over the past several thousand years. However, interest in formal study and understanding of organizations for purposes of management first found expression over the last 100 years or so. Before Industrial Revolution, when the handicraft and domestic system of production was dominant, the operations of an enterprise used to be under the direct control of the owner. But the developments in the wake of Industrial Revolutions gave birth to scienticism in the nineteenth century.  

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