Archive for October, 2008

Dysfunctional Aspects -1

We are talking Dysfunctional Aspects. We talked Rigidity and Impersonality in our previous talk. Today we are going to talk about Displacement of Objectives and Compartmentalization of Activities.

 

Displacement of Objectives

Rules originally devised to achieve organizational goals at each level become an end in themselves independent of organizational goals. Thompson calls such bureaucratic behavior as a process of “inversion of ends and means”. When individuals holding office at lower levels pursue personal objectives or objectives of sub units, the overall objectives of the organization may be neglected. When objectives get so displaced it is often difficult for managers at higher levels or even for the other constituents of the organizations such as consumers and stock holders to seek redress.

 

Compartmentalization of Activities

Specialization and division of labor are encouraged in bureaucracies to improve organization effectiveness. But the resulting categorization breeds the notion of watertight compartmentalization of jobs, restricting people from performing tasks that they are capable of performing. For example, a pipe fitter can install a pump, but is prohibited from making the electrical connection. It would also encourage a tendency to preserving existing jobs even when they become redundant. The sequential flow of work may usually have an element of idle time at almost every level. The bickering over respective jurisdictions based on specialization and categorization may also often induce dysfunctional conflict in the place of coordination and cooperation among various submits of an organizations.

 

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Dysfunctional Aspects

Bureaucracies, particularly in large complex organizations, may have unintended consequences which are often referred to as dysfunctional aspects of bureaucracy. For example, A Commercial real estate or shopping centers electric cabling plan or oceanfront luxury condos layouts require a complex planning. Over the years, there has been much disenchantment with the functioning of bureaucracies which created many antagonists of bureaucracy who prophesied about its gradual demise. The skeptics optimism however, did not fructify. None could propound workable alternatives.

 

As a result, bureaucracies survived notwithstanding the myriad dysfunctional aspects. It is not possible here to list all the dysfunctional functions caused by what Thompson calls as ‘bureaucratic’ behavior. There is also no agreement on whether all these are really counterproductive, because some of them at least are perceived at times as disguised blessing. The more prominent among the dysfunctional aspects include the following: 

  • Rigidity
  • Impersonality
  • Displacement of Objectives
  • Compartmentalization of Activities
  • Empire building
  • Red Tape
             

Rigidity
Critics of bureaucracy argue that rules are often and inflexible, encouraging status quoism and breeding resistance to change. Compliance with rules may provide the cover to avoid responsibility for failures. 

Impersonality
Bureaucracies emphasise mechanical way of doing things, giving primacy to organizational rules and regulations than individual’s needs and emotions. Contractual obligations receive primacy, relegating human relations to a back seat. The office a person holds is important than the person per se.

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Advertise management

For any business marketing is always a key part of it’s management.  With good marketing strategy, company is going to get success in the market. To be on top of market a company needs to have good advertisement. Let’s understand advertising today.

 

Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Many advertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those products and services through the creation and reinforcement of “brand image” and “brand loyalty”.

 

There are different media used as tool for advertisement. Like television, radio, cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the Internet and billboards. For large scale advertisement for same industry product trade show exhibits is best example of it. Engineering expo or auto expo is best example. For small scale or individual type advertisement table covers and table top display are good example of it. We can see advertisements on the seats of shopping carts, on the walls of an airport walkway, on the sides of buses, and are heard in telephone hold messages and in-store public address systems. Advertisements are often placed anywhere an audience can easily or frequently access visual, audio and printed information.

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Management in real life

We are talking Organizational Design, Development and Change in our blog here. Today we are going to talk different than management and organization. Last monday my son run fast towards me.  He told me that his teacher let them go home early because she had to attend a seminar.  My son went to the house of his friend.  In there, they play a video game.  They had fun there.  My son asked me to buy him also a video game just like the video game of his friend. 

I went to a mall to look for a video game just like with his friend.  My son expected me to come home with that video game.  But unfortunately I don’t find what he asked me to buy for him.  I’m getting a hard time to look for one.  When I was looking for many “Play and Charge Kit” which was displayed there, one salesman come near me and ask me what kind of Play and Charge Kit I want.  I told him what I want, but the salesman told me that they don’t have that kind.

But instead he showed me one Xbox 360.  It looks good.  I asked him what makes it different to others.  He told me that Xbox 360 contains a wireless controller and Xbox 360 play and charge kit.  He said that wireless controller is one of the best video gaming system accessories on the market today.  With a wireless controller, video gamers no long have to worry with troublesome wires getting in their way during game play. The salesmen show me Pioneer HTS-GS1 Surround Sound system, which was made specifically for Xbox. He told me this system lets me feel like I am right in the middle of the action. I not like that. I asked the salesman… “How about the headset?”  What’s the use of it?  He told me that almost everyone were using headset to play with enjoyment.  It allows video gamers the ability to chat with other players while playing their video games on-line. This makes the interactive video gaming experience take on a much more extreme level for gamers all over the world.  I feel glad with what this entire salesman told me.  I rushed to pay it, and went home as fast as I can because I want my son to see what I got.  More than he expected.  He tried to play it and use the headset and wireless controller.  He told me that it’s really more enjoyable to play it.

So, I buy it for my son and come back home. Real life management is little different than what we are talking here in our previous post. I was happy that I was able to make him happy at last. It was not what he was looking for but its better than what he want.

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Functional Aspects of bureaucracy

B Structure 

 

By structuring the duties and responsibilities and reporting relationship in a command hierarchy the organization is provide a form of structure. Structure sets the pace and framework for organizational processes. 

 

C Predictability and Stability 

 

The rules, regulations, training, specialization and structure impart predictability and thereby ensure certainty and stability to an organization. The insistence on conformity to rules and roles in the framework of a given structure, regulations and jurisdictional limits, bring some order to cope with complexity and provide for certainty in the midst of uncertainty. Merchant Account Provider is good example of stability.

 

D Rationality 

 

Since the criteria for decision-making in routine situations is prescribed ahead of events emphasizing consistency in dealing with organizational questions, a measure of objectivity is ensured in organizations. 

 

E Democracy 

 

Bureaucracy makes an organization more democratic by emphasizing more on qualifications and technical competence for purpose of recruitment and highlighting the jurisdictional roles of people at all levels in a hierarchy. The top officials may have acquired the position through election, appropriation or succession but down the level in the hierarchy the processes are guided by laid down rules, regulations, policies and practices than patronage or other privileged treatment.  

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Functional and Dysfunctional Aspects

The foregoing discussion is based on Max Weber’s description of an ideal (normative) pattern of organization. It is difficult to distinguish precisely how the functioning of organization differs from the ideal. It can nevertheless be said that all organizations have some or all of these features and the difference between one organization and the other is one of degree alone. 

 

Functional Aspects 

Some of the principal, prescriptive, normative functions that bureaucracies serve have positive significant to organizations. Whether and to what extent these positive features really obtain in an organization depends on actual practice which often falls short of expectations. Subject to this limitation the following can be considered as the functional aspects of an ‘ideal’ bureaucracy:

  1. Specialization
  2. Structure
  3. Preitabiliy and Stability
  4. Rationality
  5. Democracy

  

Specialization 

The emphasis on specialization. A bureaucratic organization-be it in government, industry or services-can be “compared with an assembly line in which each member performs his special functions” in a predictable manner. Desert Ridge Homes for Sale is having specialization in real estate business. At various levels in the organizational bureaucracy, routines work is assigned with fixed responsibilities and jurisdictional limits, providing for an element of specialization. 

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