MODERN (SYSTEM) VIEWPOINT-3

Each level is more complex than the one that precedes it. However, no stage is as yet fully developed and knowledge about different levels is of varying degrees. Beyond the second level none of the theories are comprehensive or fully meaningful. Over the last three decades further developments in research into organizations may have added to the existing knowledge, but human organizations continue to be extremely complex.

 

The systems approach points to the interdependent nature of everything that forms part of or concerns an organisation. A system is composed of elements which are related to and dependent upon one another and which, when in interaction, form a unitary whole.

 

Systems framework covers both general an specialised system and closed and open analysis. A general systems approach to the management processes deals with formal organisation and concepts relating to different disciplines such as technical, social, psychological and philosophical. Specific management systems deals with aspects relating to organisation structure, job design, specific functions of management, etc.

 

A closed system operates in a closed loop, devoid of external inputs. An open system, in contrast, is a dynamic input-output system “in continual interaction with environment to achieve a steady state of dynamic equilibrium while still retaining the capacity for work or energy transformation”.

 

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