Archive for Modern View Point

VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL STRUCTURE

The classical bureaucratic model of organization though pervasive, has been considered inappropriate to the changing requirements of modern times. A bureaucratic organization was considered to be too inflexible and hierarchical to adapt to the changes occurring in organizations and technology.

 

Parkinson’s laws and Peter Principle highlight the negative aspects of bureaucratic organizations. Whatever be the criticism against bureaucracies, it is realized that to some extent they have become essential. Therefore, writers and organizations began to explore ways to modify the bureaucratic organization structures. In essence these new structures reflect modifications to the classical principles of delegation of authority and standard of control.

 

Delegation extends the scope of the principle to the point of an abiding organization-wide philosophy of management. A tall organization structure means a series of narrow spans of control, and a flat one incorporates wide spans and limited layers of control at horizontal levels. Both the structures have their advantages and disadvantages. They should be viewed on relevant concepts and not as ideal absolutes.

 

A tall structure calls for control and close supervision over the subordinates. But close supervision may not necessarily produce better control. Similarly in a flat organization with wide spans, it may not be possible to keep close control over subordinates but it provides for decentralization, individual initiative and self-control. Tall structures are less favorably viewed it is held that self-control is better than imposed control. The choice in this regard however rests ultimately on management assumptions about individuals and groups in organizations.

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Centralization and Decentralization-2

Centralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group. In political science, this refers to the concentration of a government’s power – both geographically and politically, into a centralized government.

 

Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making governance closer to the people or citizen. It includes the dispersal of administration or governance in sectors or areas like engineering, management science, political science, political economy, sociology and economics. Decentralization is also possible in the dispersal of population and employment. Law, science and technological advancements lead to highly decentralized human endeavors. 

 

Alfred P. Slogan played and instrumental role in developing a model of central control of decentralized operations for General motors based on the following twin premises:

 

  1. The responsibility attached to the chief executive of each operation shall in no way be limited. Each such organization headed by its chief executive shall be complete in every necessary function and enabled to exercise its full initiative and logical development (Decentralization of operations)
  2. Certain central organization functions are absolutely essential to the logical development and proper coordination of the Corporation’s activities: Centralized staff services to advise the line on specialized phases of the work, and central measurement of results to check the exercise of delegated responsibility.

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Organize Christmas Shopping

Countdown started for Christmas. Everyone in family started planning how to manage Christmas holiday. I like to share my though on that as I think it is concern for every family. We try to minimize the gift exchanging in our family by pulling names, I still seem to have a long list every year. These are some gifts that I’ve appreciated getting, as well as some gifts that I think were good gifts to people that I don’t know as well. Mostly, as per my nature I tried to pick things that I didn’t think were completely common.

 

Last year I was having a bad experience for Christmas shopping. When I went to a gift card mall, it was over crowded and I need to stand in queue to get my bill and get my gift. This year I decided to go with Christmas shopping from home. I am going to buy gift card online. I was surfing on net to find good gift shopping website. Blackhawk Network is one of the good names I found on web. I want to buy gift for my wife and my two kids. I was so surprise to see there were so many gifts available on net which make me surprise. It really make me feel that why I am not shopping online.

 

Lastly, I was concern with the payment safety as well as delivery of my shopping. I was looking for someone who have secure server and trusted site logo, so I can trust them. At last I find out and I did my Christmas shopping online. I am waiting for the products to be delivery to me. Let’s see!!

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MODERN (SYSTEM) VIEWPOINT-2

Since 1940s, researches and information theorists also looked at organizations in a Systems viewpoint. In 1956 Kenneth Bounding propounded General Systems Theory (GST).

 

The GST approach suggests the following nine levels of systems complexity: 

  1. The most basic level is the static structure. It could be termed the level of frameworks. As example would be the anatomy of the universe.
  2. The second level is the simple dynamic system. It incorporates necessary predetermined motions. This could be termed the level of clockworks.
  3. The next level is a cybernetic system characterized by automatic feedback control mechanisms. This could be thought of as the level of the thermostat.
  4. The forth level is called “open-systems” level. It is a self-maintaining structure and is the level where life begins to differentiate from nonlife. This is the level of the cell.
  5. The fifth level can be termed the “genetic-societal” level. It is typified by the plant and occupies the empirical world of the botanist.
  6. The next is the animal level, which is characterized by increased mobility, teleological behavior, and self-awareness.
  7. The seventh level is the human level. The major difference between the human level and the animal level is the human’s possession of self-consciousness.
  8. The next level is that of social organizations. The important unit in a social organization is not the human per se but rather the organizational role that the person assumes.
  9. The ninth and last level is reserved for transcendental systems. This allows for ultimate, absolutes, and the inescapable unknowable.

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MODERN (SYSTEM) VIEWPOINT-1

As a part of our talk on organizational design, development and change, we discussed on different topic like Classical Viewpoint, Dysfunctional Aspects, Administrative Theory, Scientific Management, Neoclassical View Point, and many aspects which are related to Organizations. Today we will discuss on Modern means System Viewpoint here.

 

Modern theories of organization and management have been developed largely since the 1930s. The perspective here is to provide a systems viewpoint. Among the several persons who contributed to the modern theory, it was perhaps Chester I. Bernard, who in 1938, provide a comprehensive explanation of the modern view of management and organization. He considered the individual, organization, suppliers and consumers as part of the environment. Ten years later, Weiner’s pioneering work on cybernetic developed concepts of systems control by information feedback. He described an adaptive system (including an organization) as mainly dependent upon measurement and correction through feedback. An organization is viewed as a system consisting of five parts: inputs, process, output, feedback and environment.

 

Since 1940s, researches and information theorists also looked at organizations in a Systems viewpoint. In 1956 Kenneth Bounding propounded General Systems Theory (GST).

 

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