Posts Tagged Types of Organizations

MATRIX ORGANIZATION-1

The change to a matrix cannot be accomplished by issuing a new organization chart People are brought up, by and large, to think in terms of “one person, one boss” and such habits of mind are not easily changed. People must learn to work comfortably and effectively in a different way of managing and organizing.

 

Ideally, the matrix form organization induces (1) the focusing of undivided human effort on two (or more) essential organizational tasks simultaneously, (2) the processing of a great deal of information and the commitment of organization to a balanced reasoned response, and (3) the rapid redeployment of human resources to various projects, products, services, clients, or markets. 

Diamond-shaped organization rather than the conventional pyramid. The top of the diamond represents the same top management symbolized by the top of the pyramid. The two arms of the diamond symbolize the dual chain of command. In the typical case the left arm would array the functional specialist groups or what could be thought of as the resource or input side of the organization. The right arm arrays the various products, projects, markets, clients, services or areas the organization is set up to provide.

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Product versus Functional Forms-4

The discussion in the preceding section and an overview of literature on function vs product choice, permits us to observe that both forms of organization design have their own set advantages and disadvantages. The functional structure facilitates the acquisition of specialized inputs. In permits pooling of resources and sharing them across products or projects.

 

The organization can hire, utilize and retain specialists. However the problem lies in coordinating the varying nature and amount of skills required at different times. The product or project organization, on the other hand, facilitates coordination among specialists; but may result in duplicating costs and reduction in the degree of specialization. For example, a blinds manufacturing company who manufacture roller shades and woven wood shades, need to adopt product forms not functional. It depend on the type of business company is doing. A term life insurance company can go with functional while a motels industry need to select product. Thus, if functional structure is adopted, projects may fall behind; if product/project organization is chosen technology and specialization may not develop optimally. Therefore, the need for a compromise between the two becomes imperative.

 

The possible compromises between product and functional bases include, in ascending order of structural complexity:

 

  1. The use of cross-functional teams to facilitate integration. These teams provide some opportunity for communication and conflict resolution and also a degree of common identification with product goals that characterizes the product organization. At the same time, they retain the differentiation provided by the functional organization.

We will discuss on two other structural complexity in next post.

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MECHANISTIC AND ORGANIC SYSTEMS

Burns and Stalker propose two contrasting forms of management systems to suit different conditions. These are called as mechanistic organic forms. A mechanistic management system is considered appropriate to stable conditions while the organic form is suitable to changing conditions.

 

It is observed that organic systems are not hierarchical in the same way as mechanistic systems and they remain stratified based on expertise. Also, people’s commitment to the cause of the organization is supposed to be more in organic than mechanistic systems. In an organic form the hierarchic command gives way to consensus based commitment. The two forms of systems represent two ends of a continuum than being dichotomous. The relation of one form to the other is elastic and an organization may oscilate from one en (mechanistic) to the other end (organic) as the transition occurs in its conditions from relative stability to relative change.

We have considered different types of organization structures which have evolved over time. In response to complex, changing requirements. The continuum of structures range from centralization to decentralization, vertical to horizontal, mechanistic to organic and product to function. The predominant mode is decentralization with centralized control and a certain type of matrix in complex organizations. Each form has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Compromises are possible in the context of organization’s environment, technology, culture and aspects of human behavior.

 

blinds, roller shades, woven wood shades

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TYPOLOGY OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURES

Today we discuss on Typology of Organization Structure. This will help to understand the basis for evolving different types of organizational structures and examine the relative merits and demerits of different types of organizational structures.

 

INTRODUCTION OF TYPOLOGY OF ORGANIZATION STRUCTURES

We are going to discuss briefly on the typology of organization structures. Organization structures based on classical bureaucratic principles are hierarchical. But modern organization theories attempted to modify them in the light of experience, changes in technology and knowledge about human behavior. The centralized structures gave way to some sort of decentralization and thus transformed, partially at least, vertical (tall) organizations into horizontal (flat) ones, reflecting a shift in emphasis from command to consensus based self control. The relative conditions of instability and uncertainty transformed the classical mechanistic forms of management systems into organic ones. The advent of specialization and requirements of coordination had thrown up new issues and strategic choices concerning product versus function and matrix organization. The salient features of different organization structures referred to above are briefly outlined here to provide and overview than comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles. We will discuss more in next post.

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